What is Java?
Java was created by Sun Microsystems’ James Gosling and first released in 1995 . In 2009, Java was acquired by Oracle. It’s an object-oriented programming language that’s free and open-source. Java is a multi-platform language that can run on nearly any device, operating system, or server. It can also run on any Java Virtual Machine because it is compiled to byte code (JVM). Furthermore, Java is statically typed and performs type checking at build time. Java’s syntax is comparable to C and C++, although it has fewer low-level features. desperately in need of a verdict between kotlin vs java, read further.
What exactly is Kotlin?
Inspired by Java, Kotlin aspires to be a better version of the language that is cleaner, simpler, and faster to compile, combining object-oriented and functional programming.
Kotlin is a significantly newer language than Java, having only been released in 2016. It’s a free and open-source programming language that can compile code to bytecode and execute on the Java Virtual Machine (JVM), allowing it to run on nearly any platform. Furthermore, Java libraries and frameworks are also compatible with Kotlin projects.
Why do we need to compare kotlin vs java?
The well-known NullPointerExceptions in Java cause a lot of grief for programmers. NullPointerExceptions aims to allow users to assign a null value to any variable. However, let’s say a user tries to use an object reference that has an invalid value, NullPointerExceptions in Java come into play in this instance, causing an exception that developers must manage.
In Kotlin, on the other hand, null values cannot be assigned to variables or objects by default. If we attempt this, the code will fail to compile. As a result, NullPointerExceptions do not exist in Kotlin. If the developer wants to assign a null value to a variable, they must explicitly identify the variable as nullable.
Kotlin vs. Java
Now that we’ve established some context, you might be wondering how Kotlin’s rise affects Java. Will Kotlin be able to take its place? The answer isn’t that straightforward. On this subject, there are many differing viewpoints. Let’s look at the distinctions between the two sides of the discussions to comprehend them better.
In contrast to Java, Kotlin allows developers to enhance the functionality of classes without inheriting them. To use the extension function in Kotlin, the developer must use the ‘.’ notation to prefix the name of the course (that will be extended) to the name of the function produced.
To extend an existing Java class’s functionality, you must build a new style and inherit the parent class’s functionalities. To put it another way, the extension feature isn’t available.
One of the most significant distinctions between Kotlin and Java is that Kotlin requires significantly less code. It’s a highly compact language, which decreases the risks of coding errors and makes developers’ jobs easier.
Overall, Kotlin’s brevity makes it easier to manage large projects because it often requires fewer lines of code to write the same methods as Java. Things also know how to keep it concise and to the point without sacrificing clarity of syntax.
Components from the same application operate in the same process and thread on Android by default, often referred to as the main thread and responsible for the user interface. Extended operations include network I/O and CPU-intensive tasks. When either one of these activities is initiated, the relevant calling thread is blocked until the entire process is completed.
When dealing with lengthy procedures, Java allows the establishment of several background threads to avoid difficulties on the main line. The disadvantage is that controlling numerous lines is a complex operation that may result in additional code faults.
Similarly, Kotlin allows you to establish many threads. Nonetheless, it adds coroutines, a superior and more straightforward alternative.
What are coroutines, and how do they work?
Coroutines, on the other hand, are stackless and allow the developer to write code, halt the execution, and restart later. This makes it possible to write non-blocking asynchronous code that appears to be synchronous. Coroutines avoid having too many threads by avoiding creating multiple lines that the developer must handle afterward. Furthermore, they are more short and unambiguous than Java’s solution.
- Data categories
On the one hand, with Java, developers must define the fields (or variables) that will be used to hold data, as well as the constructor, getter, and setter functions for the areas/variables and other parts like hashCode(), equals(), and toString() ().
These classes are primarily used to store data and provide little (or extremely limited) functionality. Kotlin, on the other hand, makes it easier to create data-holding classes by simply inserting the “data” keyword in the class definition. The constructor, as well as the getter and setter routines for numerous fields/variables, will be generated automatically by the compiler.
- Smart casts
As a developer, if you want to cast an object in Java, you must first check that the variables’ types are compatible with the operation. The brilliant casts feature in Kotlin takes care of casting checks. The “is-checks” keyword in Kotlin’s clever compiler automatically manages superfluous casts (with stable values).
- Checked Exceptions
On Kotlin, checked exceptions aren’t available. As a result, Kotlin programmers do not need to catch or declare exceptions. Is this a positive or negative thing? Well, that is debatable.
Java developers have tested exception support. As a result, they must recognize and define exceptions. On the one hand, this can be a time-consuming and frustrating process. On the other hand, it guarantees that code is robust and that mistakes are handled.
As a result, checked exceptions support offers both advantages and disadvantages. Ultimately, it comes down to what each developer values the most.
- Functional programming
Kotlin is a hybrid of object-oriented and functional programming. Functional programming is a declarative programming paradigm that uses mathematical functions to manage computations. Practical programming principles include high-order functions and lambda expressions.
The first suggests that functions should be treated as first-class objects. As a result, as a statically typed language, Kotlin may use various function types to express functions. To put it another way, functions can be used in multiple ways.
In addition, lambda expressions and anonymous functions can be used with Kotlin. This is referred to as a “functional literal.” As a result, it symbolizes a process that isn’t declared and is used as an expression immediately.
Java, on the other hand, is more restricted to object-oriented programming. It has, nevertheless, taken some steps toward functional programming. Since Java 8, released in 2014, lambda expressions have been available, functions that can be defined without belonging to a class. A part in Java is associated with a method, and lambda’s return from plans was allowed in Java 8.
- Primitive Types
In Java, primitive type variables are not objects; they are Java’s predefined data types. The primitive data types in Java are int, byte, short, double, float, boolean, char, and long. As a result, these variables can’t be objects represented by structs or classes.
Although primitive types are not classes, Java programmers can use classes to wrap a primitive type value. To do so in Java, the developer must expressly state it. In Kotlin, however, as soon as you start a variable of a primitive type, it is considered an object.
- Public fields
In Java, public fields (sometimes called non-private fields) are available. They’re helpful if the callers of an object need to adjust to the representation of that same object because they allow the developer to change the picture of an object without having to adjust the callers. The fields can be made public in this fashion, and the public API will remain intact, allowing the program to remain maintainable.Kotlin, on the other hand, lacks public fields.
- Wildcard types
A question mark (?) in code is usually interpreted as a wildcard, indicating an unknown type (variable, field, or parameter).Kotlin, unlike Java, does not support wildcards. Instead, it uses a declaration-site variance and type projections as a substitute.
- Implicit transformations
On the one hand, implicit widening conversions are not supported in Kotlin. As a result, smaller types cannot be transformed into larger ones. To get around this, Kotlin programmers must do an explicit conversion to obtain the desired type conversion. Java, on the other hand, enables implicit conversions, which eliminates the need for developers to conduct direct conversions.
In summary, Kotlin is a much younger language that can compile code to bytecode and run on any Java Virtual Machine (JVM). However, Java developers have checked exceptions support.
This means that Kotlin’s developers do not require catching or declaring exceptions. High-order functions and lambda expressions are some of the functional programming concepts in Kotlin. In reality, lambda expressions can be provided as objects in Java and executed on demand. Java also began to enable high-order functions with the introduction of lambda expressions.